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[2]      Ayres I., Braithwaite J. Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate. In: Oxford Socio-Legal Studies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992.

[3]      World Conservation Union Paper on Human Rights and Environment: Overlapping Issues. Available at:

[4]      Undang-Undang No. 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup [The Act No. 32, 2009 on Environmental Protection and Management]. (in Indonesian)

[5]      Undang-Undang No. 41 Tahun 1999 tentang Kehutanan dan perubahannya [The Act No. 41, 1999 on Forestry, with addendums]. (in Indonesian)

[6]      Peraturan Pemerintah No. 45 Tahun 2004 tentang Perlindungan Hutan [Government Regulation No. 45, 2004 on Forest Protection]. (in Indonesian)

[7]      Peraturan Pemerintah No. 4 Tahun 2001 tentang Pengendalian Kerusakan dan atau Pencemaran Lingkungan Hidup yang Berkaitan dengan Kebakaran Hutan dan atau Lahan [Government Regulation No. 4, 2001 on Environmental Damage and/or Pollution Control related to Forest and Land Fire]. (in Indonesian)

[8]      Instruksi Presiden Republik Indonesia No. 11 Tahun 2015 tentang Peningkatan Pengendalian Kebakaran Hutan dan Lahan Presiden Republik Indonesia [Presidential Instruction No. 11, 2015 on Enhancement of Forest and Land Fire Control]. (in Indonesian)

[9]      Peraturan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup No. 10 Tahun 2010 tentang Mekanisme Pencegahan Pencemaran dan/atau Kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup yang Berkaitan dengan Kebakaran Hutan dan/atau Lahan [Regulation of the State Minister for the Environment No. 10, 2010 on Pollution Prevention Mechanisms and/or Environmental Damages Related to Forest and/or Land Fire]. (in Indonesian)

[10]   Pedoman Pengendalian Kebakaran Lahan dan Kebun. Kementerian Pertanian, 2010 [A Guide to Control Agriculture and Land Fire. Ministry of Agriculture, 2010]. (in Indonesian)

[11]   Anotasi Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup. Ed. 1. Indonesian Center for Environmental Law, 2014 [Annotation on the Act No. 32, 2009 on Environmental Protection and Management. Ed. 1, Indonesian Center for Environmental Law, 2014]. (in Indonesian)

[12]   Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah 2014-2019 [Indonesian National Medium-Term Development Plans 2014-2019]. (in Indonesian)

[13]   Panduan Penanganan Perkara Perusakan Hutan. Kejaksaan Agung RI, Januari 2015 [Handling Guide for Forest Destruction. Indonesian Attorney General's Office, January 2015]. (in Indonesian)

[14]   Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Perkembangan Penanganan Penegakan Hukum Kebakaran Lahan dan Hutan [Ministry of Environment and Forestry The Progress of Law Enforcement against Fire Cases]. Available at: forest.html (in Indonesian)

[15]   Kagan R.A. Understanding Regulatory Enforcement. LAW & POLICY, 11 (2) April (1989), 89-119. Available at:


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