LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL PICTURE OF THE CHILD IN THE GENERAL POLISH LANGUAGE

Е - Скорупська-Рачинська

Abstract


The linguistic and culturalpicture of the child in ethnically Polishareas has been under creation for centuries.Considering the old days, when a child’ssituation was dire, signifi cant changes havetaken place. Currently, the child is protectedby legal rules, a number of legislative actsas well as actions established by good practice,consistent with the fundamental humanrights.The varying position of the child is reflected by extensive lexis: among over 100synonyms of the word child in the modernPolish language, neutral names constitutearound 58,8 % and include: general referencewords, words referring to the youngest,to the slightly older, to adolescent children;words referring to family relations, to particularsocial position or standing within thefamily. With a few exceptions, the remaining37,3% can be classifi ed as colloquial. Thepicture of the child is also created by meansof a rich phraseology as well as 440 proverbsthat include the word ‘child’.From the social perspective, a child inthe Polish culture was noticed in the Enlightenment,and it was only in Positivism,which introduced realistic and naturalisticperception of the reality, that the child wasgiven central place.A child as a physical and social beingwas viewed by others in relation to theiradulthood and the knowledge and powerassociated with it, which undoubtedly determinedthe child’s position, rights and statusin terms of civilizational development. Commonlyused vocabulary and phraseology aswell as literary creations are a refl ection ofthis phenomenon.

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